The UK is still waiting for a number of significant female "firsts" such as women at the head of theBank of England, BBC or CBI, said a government minister.
Employment Minister Esther McVey said women in the UK were getting into work faster than in any other country in the G7, but there were too many professions where not enough women were reaching top jobs.
The minister launched a campaign - #NotJustForBoys - aimed at highlighting the issue and praising organisations such as the London Stock Exchange and Royal Society of Chemistry which have recently appointed women to top jobs.
The minister said: "Up and down the country, women of the UK have been staging a quiet revolution - we're in work in record numbers, with huge inroads into the top professions.
"The modern face of women in work in the UK is largely unrecognisable from the choices available to our grandmothers, and as part of our long-term economic plan I want to support even more women make the most of the record vacancies UK businesses are creating.
"Who would have believed in 2015 we are still seeing 'female firsts' - only last year we had the first female to be President of the Royal Society of Chemistry in nearly 200 years of history.
"We've only just had the first female chief executive of the London Stock Exchange and we're still waiting for the 'first' in many of the UK's top jobs at organisations like the Bank of England, the BBC and CBI.
"Through the #NotJustForBoys campaign we want to energise young girls and support more women make the choices that are right for them, and have the security of regular wage in an industry that's driving Britain's growth."
Businesses backing the campaign include Barclays Bank, BT, Nestle, Network Rail, National Express and John Lewis.
The Government said the employment rate for women was a record 68%, with almost 3,500 more women in work every week since the coalition came to power.
Most of the growth has been in managerial, professional and technical professions, but women are under-represented in sectors such as engineering (7% of the workforce is female), broadcasting (20%) and science and engineering (25%).
The campaign was launched ahead of the latest unemployment figures, which are expected to show another fall in the jobless total.